Italian Students Protest Institutional Neglect and Public Education System

Italian students demand dignified education and an end to precarious labor  for all : Peoples Dispatch

Students across Italy have been mobilizing in cities such as Bologna, Florence, and Naples to protest the public educational system. The demonstrations have sparked police violence. Many have also been arrested as protesters continue to demonstrate. This article will discuss the different aspects of the protests. Some concerns discussed include the Internship requirement, lack of research funding, and the mythology of urban guerillas.

Internship requirement

Student demonstrations in over 40 Italian cities have highlighted the deteriorating state of the public education system in the country. The students are angry at the mandatory internship program introduced in 2015, which has resulted in two students’ deaths while on the job. In addition, a year after Giuseppe Parelli’s death, the government introduced the “alternanza scuola-lavoro” system that requires students to perform at least 90 hours of internships in professional contexts.

The current Italian government should listen to students’ complaints and immediately halt the budget cuts slated for next year. This crisis is affecting the future of the young people of Italy, where youth unemployment hovers at 35 percent, making it the seventh-highest out of 34 European nations, according to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. Students across Italy seek a better future through political organizing and connecting with other movements.

The students’ demonstrations are linked to feminist struggles. Gender affirmation policies and sexual health education have been disenfranchised in Italian schools. In addition, students are directly affected by gendered violence. The NUDM Cam4 movement has also made a difference by raising public awareness about rape culture, abortion, and reproductive health. However, the student movement has not yet established a transfeminist perspective.

A recent study suggests that many students are forced to take unpaid internships. Unpaid internships often result in poor quality work experience, so students must fund their travel to work placements. Further, numerous cases of students being forced to pay for their journey, a practice considered unwelcome. Additionally, the quality of education is a prime concern for many people.

Youth on Italy's streets are fighting for their lives : Peoples Dispatch

Lack of research funding

Italian universities are struggling with the lack of research funding. For decades, Italy has reduced spending on public education by allocating more money to private institutions. However, as the population grows, Italian universities must compete to keep up with the rising demand. More competition leads to higher efficiency and more students and can promote better research. It is also a way to improve Italian scientific culture and economy.

The FFO is the government’s annual contribution to public universities. It represents the majority of public university revenues. FFO XXX consists of a base amount (proportional to historical allocations for each university) and a part based on competitive funding. The latter is much smaller than historical allocations. Student fees account for 8.5% of all university revenues despite the lowered contributions. In 2010, only five of the nine universities received more than half of the FFO.

However, the recent lack of research funding is not a cause for alarm. On the contrary, the Ministry of Education recently promoted the “Anagrafe degli studenti,” a census of Italian students. This data will be helpful to researchers in the future. The Ministry of Education also encourages private universities to increase their research funding and develop innovative projects. But there is much work to be done before it can be ranked highly.

The Italian educational system was formerly highly centralized. But decentralization of responsibility has been taking place since the late 1950s. In 1976, the president issued presidential decrees that devolved more educational commitment to the regions, provinces, and communes. Although centralized, the system continued to have specialized areas such as medical schools and higher education. In 1989, a new ministry of science and research was established to guide, fund, and integrate the university system.

Students in Italy Protest as Schools Reopen

Repression of student protests

On May 12th, eleven young activists were arrested in Turin after participating in protests against the workplace deaths of two high school students. These events are indicative of the repression that students have faced throughout Italy. Students have publicly criticized the public education system for private gain, while the Ministry of Education has remained silent. As a result, the Italian government is repressing student protests, imprisoning political organizations, and persecuting young activists.

Since 1967, student protests across Italy have become more vocal and aggressive as alternative lifestyles and ideologies have begun to dominate youth culture. Students began to question the church’s power, the Communist Party, and the ubiquitous consumer society. One slogan, “I want to be an orphan,” captured the zeitgeist of the students. While the movements sprang from ideological groupings, they were also driven by the demands of their generation.

While there has been much discussion about the repression of these student demonstrations, it remains unclear whether the Pinera annunci 69 government is addressing the root causes of these actions or just reacting to them. Student protests across Italy have failed to build meaningful connections with workplace organizers in the past. However, the current situation may present an opportunity for students to take advantage of conditions and tactics from past student movements.

In contrast, a transfeminist movement in Chile has been active for years. The movement is anti-patriarchal, feminist, and capitalist, calling for destroying oppressive structures. It aims to break down stereotypes about gender and race and to create alternative spaces for socialization. However, there has not been much space for the trans feminist perspective to be positioned within the student movement.

Teen Intern's Death Sparks Wave Of Student Protests Across Italy

The mythology of urban guerillas

The Italian student movement, or the “Movimento del Popolo,” gathered thousands of members to protest the public education system and the institutional neglect of Italy’s youth. The students were angry at a mandatory internship program for high school students instituted in 2015. The protests began after two students died in work-related accidents. As a result, the government has reacted with violence and repression. Protesters have called for the resignation of Prime Minister Mario Draghi and are demanding the abolition of compulsory internships.

 

Nintendo Switch EShop Adds Mature Puzzle Game – Hentai Uni

The Nintendo Switch eShop has just added a new game to its catalog: ‘Hentai Uni.’ Rated M for mature content, this puzzle game requires players to be at least 17 years old. This review will outline the game’s gameplay, its eShop availability, and its sexual content. This review will also discuss why this game is suitable for older players.

‘Hentai Uni’ is a sexually explicit puzzle game.

Hentai is a subgenre of Japanese media characterized by sexy themes. Unfortunately, while Nintendo’s new ‘Hentai Uni’ game is only rated PEGI 12 in the UK, it is not yet available in the United States. This game features four girls and 12 beautifully drawn scenes. The game wants to be relaxing and cheering, but the characters in the scenes will strip off their clothing every time you complete a level, kind of like the usual content you might find in hanime tv. While that may seem like an innocent enough goal, ‘Hentai’ clearly shows that Big Way Games isn’t doing its job correctly.

Nintendo has already warned that Hentai – a subgenre of Japanese manga – isn’t the first game to feature sex. Its predecessors, such as Panty Party and Fantasy Tavern Sextet, have also been labeled “sexy.” So while Nintendo’s move to allow adult content is applaudable, it would do well to look into the quality control of its Steam store.

While ‘Hentai Uni’ is similar to traditional puzzle games, it is sexually explicit. Players can solve the puzzle by swapping squares to form a pattern. The game has four different girls in each grid, and the pieces get smaller as you progress. Although this might be a turnoff for some people, this game is still a fun way to spend a few minutes.

Nintendo’s parental controls feature heavily for ‘Hentai Uni.’ The controls’ source is the PEGI ratings. Although ‘Hentai Uni’ has been rated M for children in the United States, it is not suitable for those under the age of 12. So it is best to consult your local store before purchasing the game.

It is rated M for mature.

The Nintendo Switch eShop has just added a new NSFW game to its catalog. Unlike other Nintendo games, this one contains sexual themes and imagery that may offend some players. However, despite its PEGI 12 rating, this game can be played with one hand. However, Nintendo is generally known for making family-friendly games. It has opened its doors to new genres with the Switch.

The ESRB has rated Henti vs. Evil as “Mature audiences.” This game contains blood and violence. It also has strong language and simulated gambling. Sexual content is on the same scale as violence and must be brief. If you are unsure about this game, we recommend a preview. It is available on the Nintendo Switch eShop now for around 2.20 euros.

The rating of Hentai varies from country to country. Although it is rated M in the US, it is not available in Brazil. Nintendo makes it clear that this game is for adults. Although it’s rated M, the game’s content is still considered inappropriate for younger children. As long as you play it responsibly, you shouldn’t face any problems. The game’s creators are working on a ‘PG-13’ version.

Nintendo has taken a less strict approach to adult content on the Switch in recent years. The Wall Street Journal has reported that Nintendo has allowed violent games on the console. Although they aren’t the first games of this type into the eShop, they aren’t the first to do so. Nintendo has noted that its parental control feature can prevent kids from playing these games.

Hentai Uni Switch NSP | nsw2u.xyz

Best played by older players 17 and older.

While many people will find a game with a sexual theme off-putting, Hentai Uni is a unique title. Designed to be played with one hand, this game involves swapping squares in a grid to complete several tasks. Unfortunately, besides having a rather sexual theme, this game is also exceptionally cheaply drawn. It also lacks any animation, and its characters are increasingly bare-breasted.

Parents need to know that the game is not for children under 12. However, parents can still set parental controls on the Switch to limit access to content aimed at children. In addition, the game is rated M in the US, which is appropriate for players of that age. While this is certainly not appropriate for younger children, it is not inappropriate for those with an adult-oriented mindset.

While Hentai Uni is the first game to hit the eShop, it’s far from the only one of its kind. Other matches in the genre include Fantasy Tavern Sextet, Panty Party, DokiDoki Pants, and Panty Party. In addition, Nintendo has noted that its parental control function helps protect younger children from playing adult-themed games.

Despite being rated PEGI 12 in the UK, the Nintendo Switch eShop has added another sexually explicit game to its store. e Hentai Uni is a new game from Big Way Games. Only PEGI 12 in the UK, the game includes four girls and 12 beautifully drawn scenes. Despite being intended to relax and cheer up players, it is also a game that shows the characters stripping off their clothes.

It is a Japanese subgenre.

The Puzzle RPG subgenre has been making waves in the global market for many years. As of September 2015, it has generated 7.44% of the total revenue of the Japanese market, making it the fourth-largest genre in the world. Puzzle & Dragons, Dragon Ball Dokkan Battle, and Youkai Watch Punipuni lead the way. In the US, it is the 15th largest subgenre, while it only accounts for 0.7% of the total market in China.

While the visual novel genre is popular in the Western world, the Japanese subgenre has been gaining popularity. Graphic novels account for approximately 70% of all PC games released in Japan. However, the genre’s development history is distinct from Western adventure games. Although they share many standard features, the Japanese genre has distinctive features, including a strong focus on narrative and character development. The genre is also free from traditional puzzle game elements, such as inventory management.

Another subgenre is word construction games. These games often require the player to construct words by rearranging letters and combinations. Most feature a single avatar and a menu structure. They often feature action buttons and risk/reward based on time limits. Some word construction games feature gambling aspects. FIFA 22, Hearthstone, and Heroes of Warcraft are examples of this type of game. You can also play a game that combines the two.

Another Japanese subgenre of puzzle games is Sokoban. The player must push boxes or crates around a warehouse. The game’s board features squares, each representing a floor. Some squares contain boxes, while others are storage locations. In Sokoban, the player must push boxes into the correct places to move them to their desired storage locations.

El nuevo juego de Nintendo Switch de $ 2 puede ser el más NSFW hasta el momento - Noticiast

It is not a sliding puzzle game.

In addition to the classic puzzle genre, Nintendo’s Switch eShop has added a new sexually explicit game, Hentai Uni. This game is like a jigsaw puzzle with squares that must be swapped to solve it. This game is rated PEGI 12 in the UK. You can even play this game with kids, but the graphics and sound effects might not be for the faint of heart.

While Nintendo Switch eShop has parental controls based on PEGI ratings, the new game is still visible to the general public. Those with parental controls can disable the game’s content, but users can still see the product page if they enter their age. The game is suitable for players aged twelve and older, though it’s not rated for kids.

This new game features 12 beautifully drawn scenes featuring four anime girls removing their clothing and taking off their shirts and skirts. Despite being rated PEGI 12 in the UK, the game contains plenty of sexual content. Unfortunately, it has only recently featured in the Nintendo Switch eShop. While some people find it disturbing and inappropriate, others will find it therapeutic. The eShop listing for Hentai Uni has more than enough information to determine whether or not you should purchase the game.

While Hentai Uni isn’t the first sexy game to hit the eShop, it is a welcome addition. Although it’s not the first, this Japanese subgenre has always featured explicit nudity. Hentai Uni has been a hot-selling game on the eShop for just 2.20 euros. While Nintendo should be applauded for letting sex-themed games onto the Switch, their quality control needs improvement.

Scalapay – the first Italian fintech unicorn after $1.2 billion funding

 

Post-BNPL Scalapay is Italy’s first unicorn after a $497 million funding round appeared on the Silicon Republic. Fintech startup Scalapay became Italy’s first unicorn after raising $497 million (€444.6 million) in a Series B investment funding round.

Fintech startup Scalapay is valued at more than $1 billion (€890 million) following a funding round led by Tencent and Willoughby Annunci69 Capital, involving Tiger Global, Gangwal, Moore Capital, Deimos, and Fasanara Capital. The acquisition, backed by Tiger Global, is the industry’s latest unicorn after raising about $497 million in new funding from Chinese tech giant Tencent and U.S. firm Willoughby Capital.

The Tiger Global-backed acquisition, which raised $155 million at a $700 million valuation in August 2021, was led by Tiger Global with additional backing from Baleen Capital and other investors, including Woodson Capital Fasanara Capital and Ithaca support.

Scalapay, now a unicorn, raises $497M Series B and enters the checkout market

The new increase also included former backers Tiger Global and Fasanara and new investors Gangwal, Moore Capital, and Deimos.

The handover of the “buy now, pay after Scalapay” unicorn club card platform, the Series B round led by Tencent and Willoughby Capital and attended by all members of Tiger Global, Gangwal, Moore Capital, Deimos, and Fasanara Capital. The co-lead was New York-based Willoughby Capital, which previously invested in Bolt.

They started a new restart in November and were mandated in early December. Scalapay makes the shopping experience more enjoyable and easier for customers, facilitating the financial impact. Their BNPL offerings include three options for clients (pay in 3, pay in 4, and pay later) where clients are not required to make any payments in advance and can instead choose to pay in installments in 3 installments, four installments, or in full later.

Customers are not required to pay any money upfront and can choose to pay in three installments, four installments, or in full after 14 days. Some prefer the practical Buy Now, Pay Later (BNPL) option.

An innovative payment solution for e-commerce

Scalapay is an innovative payment solution for e-commerce merchants worldwide that allows shoppers to buy now and pay later in three convenient, interest-free payments. The mission of Scalapays is to provide a global platform based on enjoyment and the best consumer choice. In addition, fintech company Scalapay has also launched a new platform called Magic, which focuses on the payment experience for customers.

Companies using Fintech’s Scalapay services include Decathlon, Calzedonia, Swappie, Shopify, WooCommerce, Moschino, Samsonite, Nike, and Pandora. Since creating the Milan Scalapay Youporn BNPL platform, Scalapay has supplied its companies in Italy, France, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Finland, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Austria.

BNPL Solution Scalapay also recently launched the Magic Embedded Payment Processor, which aims to fix cart abandonment during checkout and registration, login, and shipping issues. Last year, Tiger Global launched its new Magic checkout product, which Scalapay says reduces friction for customers and increases shopping cart size for merchants. BNPL’s Scalapay solution works with retailers like Nike, Decathlon, Moschino, and more to increase average cart size by 48% and checkout conversions by 11%.

Scalapay raises $48M to scale its buy now, pay later service in Europe | TechCrunch

The first fintech unicorn in Italy

BNPL’s Scalapay solution is now the first fintech unicorn in Italy after the latest $497 million in Series B funding, raising the total to $1.2 billion. Italy’s fintech equity and debt consist of $213 million in equity and $284 million in debt. The investment is valued by Amber, who is also based in Singapore, at $3 billion, and the total capital raised by Amber to date is $328 million.

The company, now called Block, operates an FDIC-insured bank, a consumer payments platform, offers stock and crypto trading, and has made several high-profile acquisitions. Alpha Wave’s first $75 million has been paid, as evidenced by the Singapore company’s regulatory filings. The funding round is the latest move by CEO Anthony Knotos to transform accounting software startup Vancouver Bench into a full-service bank.

Alice Todeschini - Junior Account Manager - Scalapay | LinkedIn

Fintech firm Scalapay now plans to double its headcount by the end of the year and expand its board of directors. Today is a big day for Italy as the $497 million Scalapays Series B payment platform gives the country its first unicorn since the dot-com boom. Since Scalapay’s recent Serie A round, Scalapay has tripled its payout month on month.

Asked if the choice of New York-based Tencent and Willoughby Capital was driven by a desire to relocate to Asia and the United States, Mancini replied that the Scalapays payment platform is focused on “deepening” its current markets rather than “broadening” expansion.

After making $155 million last September for Tiger Global, it was only a matter of time before the platform purchase paid off after Scalapay claims to be the first Italian startup with a valuation of over $1 billion. Fintech Scalapay, founded in 2019 by Simona Mancini and Johnny Mitrevski, offers BNPL (Buy Now, Pay Later) services to e-commerce companies worldwide.

Italy is NATO’s secret weapon in the sky

Italy is NATO’s air anchor, or, perhaps better, NATO’s overlord in the sky. Indeed, Italy has made Italy a supporter of various NATO air-policing programs. Italy pioneered the use of the F-35 for NATO air policing missions; Italy was the first to withdraw patrol aircraft from Iceland and Estonia, and the F-35s of the Baltic air police mission were intercepted for the first time in the past 12 months. Successive Italian governments have established that participation in NATO air policing is exclusively what Italy does, simply because Italy provides a disproportionately mammoth number of soldiers for several NATO, UN, and EU missions in the Mediterranean and the past.

Given a political tradition so opposed to talking about military realities, it is not surprising that Italian governments do not acknowledge their outstanding contribution to NATO air policing. However, the police still do not value anyone’s life. Conversely, as the NATO skies become less and less pleasant, NATO wants the Air Police to be bigger than ever. NATO airstrikes on Serbia in the 1990s are living proof of this. During the ten weeks of the war in Kosovo, NATO aircraft made more than 38,000 Cam4 sorties.

The Yugoslav security forces and the Kosovo Liberation Army used different weapons.

During the conflict, NATO used only aircraft and naval units. Privately, NATO’s European members discussed the goals and necessity of the war in Kosovo. More than 164,000 Serbs left Kosovo in the seven weeks following the withdrawal of Yugoslav and Serb forces and the entry of the NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR) into Kosovo. Efforts existed to convince Milosevic to allow NATO peacekeeping forces to enter Kosovo.

Allied Air Command | Spain takes lead from Italy for NATO Baltic Air  Policing

He then accepted the terms put forward by the Finnish-Russian mediation team and agreed to an UN-led military presence in Kosovo, but with the participation of NATO forces. The Rambouillet Agreement stipulates that NATO will make Kosovo an autonomous province within the Serb-dominated Kingdom of Yugoslavia. In addition, 30,000 NATO troops maintain order in Kosovo; NATO troops have unhindered access to Yugoslav territory, including Kosovo; NATO and Immunity of its agents from Yugoslav law. At first, NATO claimed to have killed 10,000 Yugoslav soldiers, while Yugoslavia claimed only 500; a NATO investigation team later corrected this among the hundreds of Yugoslav soldiers killed in airstrikes.

Since May 2021, the Italian contribution to the Alliance Air Police in the Baltics at Amari Air Base, called “Baltic Eagle II,” underlines the commitment of the Italian Air Force to NATO. Protecting the integrity of the sovereign airspace of Alliance members is an ongoing peacetime challenge that contributes to NATO’s collective defense and provides support to civilian aircraft in distress. The patrols are part of a beefed-up air policing launched by NATO after Russia annexed Crimea and helped separatists occupy eastern Ukraine. However, in the case of Italy’s role in protecting NATO’s skies, indeed, most people are not aware of this.

French Startups Innovating income management

Several giants of the cost of cellular and fintech buying and selling apps like Paypal, Robinhood, and Venmo have opened the doors for crypto funds to tens of millions of customers and resellers. Some cell phone giants and fintech buying and selling apps like PayPal, Pornhub, Robinhood, and Venmo have opened the doors for crypto funds to tens of millions of customers and resellers. Major mobile payment service providers have already joined the league of cryptocurrencies. Now, local payment systems are also trying to rely on the popularity of cryptocurrencies.

In recent years, fintech and mobile transaction applications have benefited the most from the popularity of cryptocurrency payments. In recent years, the popularity of cryptocurrency payments has made fintech and mobile transaction applications the biggest winners. The recent recognition of crypto funds has made the buying and selling of financial technology and mobile applications the biggest winners. In recent years, the French government has redoubled its efforts to transform France into a fintech hub, and it seems to be working.

Despite the economic crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, French fintech companies demonstrated resilience in 2020 with a total of € 828.2 million in 63 deals, up 18.9% from 2019, according to data from a commercial group in the French fintech sector.

French Fintech Startup Lydia partners with Tink to open banking options

Lydia gets noticed

French mobile financial services platform Lydia raised US$100 million in Series C financing, and the loan made the company valued at more than US$1 billion. According to reports, Lydia, a Paris-based consumer finance application that provides peer-to-peer payments, Visa cards, merchants, and other services, has raised US$100 million in Series C financing and is valued at more than US$1 billion. In addition, giant investors such as Tencent and Accel also support Lydia, joining its US$133 million Series B financing. Finally, Lydia has become a unicorn with a valuation of more than US$1 billion in a new round of US$100 million financings, flanked by the U.S. funds Dragoneer and Echo Strada.

Lydia is said to have achieved over $ 1 billion worth of unicorn status thanks to her latest round of capital. The $ 100 million games will occur almost a year after the $ 86 million Series B fundraising round in December 2020. The investment round includes new investors: Echo Street and Dragoneer.

Last December, the startup recently raised money, securing a $ 86 million Series B renewal. In April 2021, the startup raised a funding round of $ 220 million (€ 185 million), with a valuation of $ 1.67 billion (€ 1.4 billion). According to Dealroom and Crunchbase, 432 million euros have entered their portfolio.

Shift Technology completed a $220 million Series D investment in May 2021, raising the total funds to $320 million. The Silicon Valley-based Tipalti payment automation platform has received a US$270 million Series F financing led by G Squared. The funding comes from Tipalti, which helps global companies streamline payment and procurement processes valued at $8.3 billion. Swile completed a 70 million euros C round of financing in June 2020, bringing the total funds raised since its launch in 2018 to 115 million euros.

Agicap looks to expand

Agicap, operating in France, Germany, Spain, Italy, and the Netherlands, raised $ 100 million in funding in May 2021, valuing over $ 500 million (€ 410 million). It will also use the funds to launch new lending and investment products (recently launching cryptocurrency trading). In addition, it will expand into two new European regions, including Portugal and Spain. The company hopes that by 2025, 10 million people in Europe will use Lydia as their primary financial account.

It started as a peer-to-peer payment platform and has become the mobile payment application of choice for one-third of young people in France. It provides features far beyond its original humble beginnings. Now, it is the second most downloaded fintech app in France, enabling 5.5 million customers to conduct banking, investment, and exchange. Lydia recently partnered with the Austrian exchange Bitpanda to allow its 5.5 million users to invest in digital assets, including cryptocurrencies and fractional shares. The app currently offers cryptocurrency and stock trading. The change’s been possible after a recent partnership with the Australian cryptocurrency exchange Bitpanda.

Initially, the application was a peer-to-peer mobile payment application and later expanded to include cashback and personal loans. In terms of functionality, fintech software is comparable to Cash App or Venmo and currently has 5.5 million users.

Everything is free when you send and receive multiple payments in the app. In addition, Lydia and Bitpanda provide fractional stocks so that you can buy 10 euros worth of Apple stock 24 hours a day, seven days a week-this is new to the French market.

🇫🇷 2019 French Funding Rounds

Reaching unicorn status

By adding more products beyond peer-to-peer payments, Lydia wants to increase engagement. In addition, Lydia also offers a Small Loan from € 100 to € 3000, a Savings Account so that you can trade. The partnership allows Lydia’s clients to invest in over 170 cryptocurrencies and stocks, and precious metals without commissions.

Lydia has raised more than 160 million U.S. dollars (140 million euros) from investors such as Tencent, XAnge, XNXX, New Alpha, Groupe Duval, and Founders Future. In addition, according to TechCrunch, France responded to the creation of the financial technology super application Lydia and raised US$100 million in the C round of financing.

According to reports, the most recent capital increase helped Lydia enter the Unicorn Center at a valuation of more than $1 billion. However, Lydia’s unicorn status is mainly due to the help of existing investors such as Tencent, Accel, and Founders Future, who have invested more money in the application.

A few years ago, when a startup company decided to raise funds from existing investors, it usually meant that the team couldn’t find new investors. However, unlike British startups, French companies like Lydia do not need to share all financial data.

By 2025, the company hopes that 10 million customers in Europe will use Lydia as their primary account.

Innovating income management

Fintech startup Able has raised $3.2 million in seed funding to foster a new creative economy. Able is the first income management platform designed specifically for the emerging self-employed economy. It raised a seed fund of USD 3.29 million, led by Elefund, and provided additional support from Moonshots Capital. The Paris-based startup Stage11 raised 5 million euros in seed round financing to reimagine the meta-universe of immersive music. Music Stage11 announced a 5 million euro seed round of funding led by Otium Capital, founded by Otium Capital European venture capital fund backed by Gionathan Belolo and CEO.

Technology startup Spinach is raising $2.75 million in funding for the integration. Zoom Spinach is one of the first Zoom Apps partners to help distributed teams work more efficiently. It has announced that it has received US$2.75 million in pre-financing led by Cardumen Capital. French startup Alsid raised $14.7 million (13 million euros). Israeli SaaS security startup Atmosec raises US$6 million in seed rounds to protect the SaaS ecosystem. SaaS security company Atmosec announced the official secret launch and completion of a US$6 million seed round led by Glilot Capital Partners and Battery Ventures.

The startup has already received € 1m in seed funding and is currently preparing for a Series A promotion. Food ticket logistics is a pretty big deal in France, and the startup recently received a € 30m levy from investors, including Idinvest and Index Ventures. In July, they raised a new € 6 million from funds including BlackFin Tech and Partech, just months after the close of their seed round last year. The startup recently raised $ 14.7 million in a round led by Idinvest Partners, and the number of people on their team has skyrocketed since then.

Giving people back their power

Confluent raised $ 250 million in its Series E round in April 2020, bringing its total funding to $ 456 million. Meero is an AI-powered platform for professional photographers and a rising star for Parisian startups, which raised $ 230 million this summer. The latest round of funding for startups at the end of last year was a € 4.5 million increase, which they believe will increase the size of their R&D team and expand it across the board. Every French startup on the list has doubled, three, or even fourfold its team size in the past year.

Payment processors are now used by 1.9 million different websites, from small startups to large corporate brands. Another common trend is the number of startups that provide merchants with more straightforward B2B payment solutions.

Funding was managed by SoftBank Vision Fund 2, followed by financial investors. With e-commerce having the biggest year of growth ever, it’s no surprise these companies are making a profit. As you can see, many of the startups on this list are creating new banking and payment alternatives to make life easier for their customers. The startup currently offers government, financial and corporate FTFs.

Hypatos has raised $ 11.8 million for its software, which will enable companies to apply deep learning technology to automate a more comprehensive range of back-office operations. Cosmose AI raised $ 14.7 million to help its stores predict traffic and help them understand offline shopping habits, and increase visits. Existing investors 360 Capital Partners and XHamster, Axeleo Capital are also involved.

French Fintech Startup Lydia Raises $100 Million in Funding Spherical - TOS

Gaining competitive edge

A CRM for payment processing, explicitly built for the commercial services industry, further enhances systems, including tools to handle one-time retail purchases, service delivery, and administrative tasks that ISOs face daily, minimizing time and headaches and maximizing balances. They also have functions to assist with resource management, edge tables, and market services for organizations. In addition, the startup offers financial products related to mortgages, home equity, and personal loans for individuals.

Contactless payments and banking are essential if we have learned anything from the technology pandemic. CRMs exist to leverage customer data and offer advanced tools to help agents use customer information stored in organizations to improve lead management and sales processes. For example, with a CRM for payment processing like IRIS CRM, ISOs can automatically generate leads from various sources, including web forms and even incoming phone calls.

The company is positioning its Confluent Cloud as an enterprise offering for organizations looking to capitalize on a real-time streaming system powered, like Wannonce, by Kafka while continuing to make significant engineering investments in core Kafka software. One of the most effective ways to gain a competitive edge is by implementing a customer asset management system, a software tool designed to centralize and improve all aspects of customer service.

Navtor opens a new office in Poland and lands a strong investment

Navtor has opened a new office in Gdansk, Poland, and expanded its software development network to Houston, St. Petersburg and Egersund, Norway. CEO Tor Svane sees the move as a continuation of the company’s development because it creates a wide-ranging product portfolio on the foundations of Navtor’s e-navigation and intelligent shipping business. “We are opening a new headquarters dedicated to accelerating the development of cloud-based AI solutions and complementing our existing software development networks in Houston and St. Petersburg.”

The move strengthens the ability of companies to develop new products, including ground-breaking cruise solutions, that build on the company’s existing global customer base. Based on a porno-portfolio of innovative e-navigation solutions such as NavStation, the world’s first digital map table, and NavBox, the first certified cyber-secure gateway connecting ships to the mainland, Navtor is expanding its global network from seven full-time offices to more than 20 subsidiaries and distributors.

Navtor is based in Egersund and has a team of professionals with extensive experience in the development, market, distribution and support of official electronic maps and navigation information services for professionals in the maritime market. The headquarters used to be in Stavanger, but since Navtor was founded, the company has returned to shipping. Recalling the actions of Silicon Valley ACEL and KKR, a $10 billion capital commitment to open new offices in Germany and Denmark, the purchase of Houston Tres Solutions to improve the environment and reduce operating costs and the launch of the Navfleet Navstation 60.

The plan is to expand

Navtor, a leading provider of navigation software to the maritime industry, announced today that it has acquired a majority stake in Accel and KKR, leading global software investment firms based in Silicon Valley. Navtor has established itself as the world’s leading provider of innovative e-navigation solutions since its launch in 2011, and is a full-service provider of navigation products and services for the maritime sector. Navigation company Navtor announced that Tor A. Svane, founder of C-Map Roksa Norway, has been appointed Managing Director.

Navtor is the world-leading provider of cloud-based electronic navigation solutions including electronic nautical charts (ECCs), digital maritime publications, route optimization and fleet management with an integrated platform that provides navigators with essential travel information to address complex transit planning challenges. Navtor has recently completed a major upgrade of its Navstation software and introduced new features that provide enhanced security, ease of use, accuracy and efficiency to the digitized shipping industry.

Signal Group, a marine technology investment firm, is the developer of Signal Ocean Platform, a SaaS platform for commercial optimization of shipping. DeRecktor Shipyard Hires Steady The shipyard announced Thursday that Jan Steady has joined the company as Chief Operating Officer.

IBCS has delivered advanced and powerful C4I systems to IAMD Poland and Northrop Grumman looks forward to supporting Poland and its European allies with industry-leading solutions in the future.

Riviera - News Content Hub - NAVTOR acquires fleet analytics firm Tres  Solutions

Other maritime softwares

The efficient new hull shape was developed in collaboration with Southerly Design, CFD Analysis and Optimization and Seaspeed Marine Consulting. This means that the land-based team using Navfleet will have more visibility and control over ship operations, enabling ongoing awareness and optimization.

Deepsea Technologies has secured $5 million in fresh financing from existing and new investors to advance technology and product research, as well as design development for shipping, digitalization, and decarbonization. New ships will make constructive improvements based on operator feedback to improve performance and strategic marines following the successful launch of the Gen 3 design.

In 2004 Jeppesen acquired SBS International, a New York City-based provider of crew scheduling services. It was 2007, when the company purchased C-Map, a provider of digital maritime cartographic data services and other navigation information. By 2016, Jepkesen sold its marine division to Digital Marine Solutions.

Reaching new horizons

The company was founded in 1934 by Elrey Borges Jeppesen, a pilot who had worked for Varney Air Lines and was the first to create in-flight navigation maps for pilots. In 1989, Lockheed bought DataPlan Redtube, a flight planning and weather services company.

Jeppesens, now known as Jeppesen Sanderson, is an American company that provides navigation information, operational planning tools, and flight planning products and software. On October 23rd, 2006 The New Yorker reported that the company was responsible for the logistical planning for the extraordinary returns flights of the CIAs.

The AUVs can make autonomous decisions and change their mission profile based on environmental data they receive from sensors on the go. They also allow scientists to conduct other experiments on the surface, and to collect data from the surface and the deep sea. Hybrid vehicles (HROVs) combine the design advantages of both types of vehicles on one platform.

New K-8 Distance Education Principal Mike Grable, principal of Whitman Middle School, will oversee distance education for students under the supervision of Whitman-Hanson Regional School District staff who teach under the district’s hybrid model. On Monday, the Odyssey Marine Exploration Board appointed Christopher “Chris” E.

Investors to develop greek software and tech startups

Two groups, SEV and Endeavor, are joining forces to form a community of innovative Greeks. Who will benefit from Greece’s economic prospects by creating growth, jobs and strengthening the resilience of the Greek economy. Late last year, a global not-porn-profit organization based in Greece did a fantastic job of working with the Greek startup ecosystems. To provide knowledge and support to young entrepreneurs aspiring to the region. Now the two groups have teamed up to create an innovative community of Greeks which will benefit Greek economic prospects, grow growth and create jobs, and boost the resilience of their economy.

The Association of Enterprises and Industry in Greece, also known as SEV, is a non-profit organization whose aim is to create in Greece a new international community of Greek businessmen and businesswomen with a common aim.

The network aims to bring Greek entrepreneurs, investors, managers, and researchers from around the world together with the fastest-growing Greek startups. The team behind the Great Progress program has been coordinated with Greek investors, who have up to $10 million in investment capital at their disposal. The Greek Startup Universe online program is free for Greek and Cypriot tech startups and promising technology companies. The program aims to bring together innovative Greeks in the world through strategic partners like GreekTech in New York and Cyprusinno in Cyprus, as well as the Economic and Trade Office of the Greek Consulate General in San Francisco.

Greek start-up to explore new markets

Greek start-ups will have the chance to work with leading companies through this initiative. They will exchange well-known tips and advice, and explore new markets as the world grows. A common goal is to create an open knowledge network, a space where the world-renowned Greek entrepreneurs, investors and senior executives can exchange information, connections, and xvideos on how to grow and start a business in Greece. Innovative Greeks initiative aims to become a digital community through participation of  creative Greeks from all over the world who are willing to share their knowledge, connections, and money with fast-growing Greek startups.

A panel of experts from across business will take part in the next Hellenic Innovation Network (HIN) webinar on April 8th. The webinar will include a discussion with founders of four Greek start-ups that are advancing from fund-raising to scale-up and achieving global growth for Greek companies. Successful founders of Hellenic descent, investors with specialized leadership experience from some of the largest technology innovation centers, will meet with Greek and Cypriot founders of tech start-ups from around the world during the eight-week initiative. This community of start-ups not only offers networking opportunities but also benefits from the dissemination of knowledge by those willing to share their knowledge, connections, and resources to contribute to the growth of the Greek innovation ecosystem.

Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis will participate in the Innovative Greek Digital Conference and will take part in a question and answer session with Chairman Sev Dimitris Papalexopoulos and chairman Costanza Sbokou Konstantakopoulou. Greek Deputy Minister of Economic Diplomacy Kostas Fragogiannis will explain how Greek economic diplomacy can support businesses in today’s world.

Η νεανική ομάδα της Endeavor - Messinia Live

Adapt and overcome

Indeed, the pandemic in Greece has produced mini-brain gains, as technology professionals come together and engage with start-ups, executives, and investors. Greek startups and investors have also extended their cooperation to neighboring Cyprus, Romania, Albania, and Bulgaria.

What the pandemic means for Greek investors and startups is that everyone recognizes that they can work and hire anywhere, and that Greece is not a bad place. Successful Greek technology companies will not look to the Greek market, but it can be a springboard for them to compete in the global market.

We will continue to support Greek startups because we cannot afford to forego amazing companies in our own backyard and because we are investing in Europe and across Europe. We will invest in startups across Europe by connecting with founders, investors, and consultants in Greece and targeting Greece. For local startups, we will seek Greek founders from around the world and invest in Greek founders based in the United States.

Endeavor is a global non-profit organization with an award-winning and innovative model of private sector development looking for dynamic professionals to work as entrepreneurs selection and growth managers in Athens, Greece. Endeavor Greece strives to add high-quality professionals with 3-7 years of experience and passion for entrepreneurship to its team, who share their vision to support entrepreneurs and accelerate growth and change in Greece. Katerina Pramatari, is a founding partner of UniFund, a Greek VC fund with a technology transfer and innovation window of EUR 30 million. Equifund invests in start-ups and spin-offs in the pre-start and start-up stages to support the growth of new companies exploiting the hidden potential of existing Greek universities and R & D in the technology sector.

32 Top Infrastructure Startups and Companies in Greece (2021) – BestStartup.eu

Greek start-ups strive in diversity

Alexandra Choli is an experienced expert in operations and business development strategy, an enthusiastic entrepreneur and founder of Metavallon VC, and an active angel and institutional investor in Greece.

IFC / World Bank Group, a member of the World Bank Group, became a shareholder of Hellas Beeg Direct, a groundbreaking Greek start-up aimed at disrupting the country’s insurance industry. IFC has invested €3.5 million in the company as part of a $7 million share offering.

Innovation Norway supports the Greek software provider Ulysses Systems Hellas and the Norwegian Software as a Service (SaaS) solutions provider Vesselman in developing an integrated plan for maintenance systems, project management tools and technical projects. The project, supported by an EEA grant to develop integrated software solutions from Ulysses and Vesselman, is the best in its category. It will connect maintenance systems from 1 June 2020 and will be initiated by Vesselman CEO Glenn Edvardsen and founder of Ulysses Systems, Dimitris Lyra.

Digital services and systems related to maintenance and dry dock processes will improve in their functions. The integrated solution between the Ulysses and Vesselman software, both of which are the best in their category, enables the unlimited exchange of information between the two programs. Ship managers would have a complete overview of the maintenance process and a complete overview of ship repairs. The solution based by ensuring extensibility and adaptability to other applications promises to be innovative in its industry. The Norwegian partner Vesselman offers its innovative and popular technical project management for dry dock applications.

Development to improve life quality

Greek and Odysseus will provide a management system for technical operations, planning, documentation and technical maintenance. The Federal Highway Administration has awarded $8.7 million in grants to Surface Transportation System Funding Alternative (STSFA) to eight projects to test new user-based financing methods for roads and bridges. The projects will explore a variety of long-term financial support options for the Highway Trust Fund.

Optimization of ship maintenance and operational performance in the long term. It will enable preparation, planning, and implementation of dry dock projects as well as planned maintenance and dry dock of seagoing vessels. The solution enables the preparation, planning, and implementation of dry dock projects as well as the planned maintenance of dry dock and seagoing vessels.

The project will replace 700 feet (0.21 km) of cast iron pipe and lead joints with new 8 inches (0.2 m) of polyvinyl chloride on the main and 600 feet (0.18 km) of supply pipe.

They will also support contact with transport officials to help the public understand the new methods. The authority will also receive $300,000 for the lead knife replacement project. Since the Highway Trust Fund’s creation five years ago, the Federal Highway Administration has allocated $737 million to 37 projects across the state. All this to test the design, implementation, and adoption of a range of user-based systems such as mileage-based charges.

Quantum research and war technology tools in the Netherlands

Microsoft has opened a new quantum research laboratory at the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. On February 21, King Willem Alexander opened the Microsoft Quantum Lab on the Delft University of Technology campus in the Dutch capital.

The Qutech Research Institute works with industry in collaboration with the Delft University of Technology and the Dutch Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) to develop quantum computers and quantum internet. The Microsoft Quantum Lab focuses on the development of qubits, the building blocks of a quantum computer.

The new Microsoft Laboratory at the Delft University of Technology is the latest step towards transforming quantum computing into reality. The laboratory results from a partnership between Microsoft and Qutech Research on quantum computers’ building blocks. Leo XXX Kouwenhoven, science director of the Microsoft Quantum Lab and Professor at Delft University, said: “With the opening of the new Microsoft Quantum Laboratory, we see what is possible business, science and government unite.”

The Qutech vision is to develop new theories and methods to overcome the many challenges of implementation of quantum technology and to create valuable applications such as the first scalable quantum computer and a secure quantum internet. Furthermore, the application of quantum technology could lead to breakthroughs in areas such as new materials and new medicines. We are taking the next important step in building the best quantum technology ecosystem in Europe with our in-house quantum system.

The Netherlands must become quantum-ready' - TU Delft Campus

Ongoing research into seemingly simple questions

Rob Elsinga, national technology officer at Microsoft Netherlands, brought this up to illustrate simple questions that underlie basic qubits research. Simple questions to which we do not know the answers but which involve complex biological processes.

In short, quantum computers can do fantastic things in health care, energy, and many other areas. For example, by understanding photosynthesis, quantum computers can be used to produce more efficient solar cells.

A research team from Qutech in the Netherlands reports on the first multi-node quantum network connecting three quantum processors. In addition, they succeeded in demonstrating a necessary quantum network protocol in principle. The company employs 230 people, including 30 transmission system operators, and contributes the know-how of 100 other employees.

The research team of Qutech in the Netherlands and its results are essential for a quantum internet. Moreover, the national plan for quantum technology is reflected in Microsoft’s ambition to make the Netherlands the international capital of quantum technology. The House of Quantum, also known as SMART, is a 12,000-square-foot quantum Europe that will build an ecosystem of businesses, investors, and researchers to create the quantum technology companies of tomorrow.

Work is already underway; scientists collaborating

The House of Quantum in Delft will be housed on the Delft University of Technology (TU) campus in a building where work has already begun. The university says the house will be the physical heart of the ecosystem. It will host various start-ups and business laboratories that will share technology facilities.

The building will contain a high-tech environment for the development and testing of quantum technologies. The Delft Chaturbate Circuits (DCC) team will be happy to work together to develop state-of-the-art quantum technology. The DC design cycle will be critical for rapid analysis, construction, manufacturing and measurement.

Fulfilling the high expectations of quantum computers and the quantum internet requires investment in money, time and effort. For example, Intel, the world’s largest chipmaker, invested in quantum research in 2015.

With the implementation of quantum computing technology, quantum networking is also coming into the spotlight. Powered by the Internet, any two computers on Earth can connect, enabling applications that reached unprecedented proportions decades ago. However, while the field has focused on universal quantum computers, the idea of joining them has been relegated to the distant future.

Today, researchers in many laboratories around the world are working on the first version of a quantum Internet – a network connecting two quantum devices over long distances, such as a quantum computer and a sensor –. Just as the Internet distributes information through bits of 0 and 1, a future quantum internet could use quantum bits of 0 and 1 simultaneously. Such a device would have to capture every photon it encounters. The quantum computer would have to have at least a few hundred qubits to correct and process the signal.

World-class quantum research in the Netherlands

A 2018 paper described a laboratory experiment that attempted to detect the Majorana zero-mode particle by measuring the conductivity of a superconductor at cryogenic temperatures. This is important because scientists want to use it as a qubit in a quantum computer and believe that it is more robust to store information than today’s qubits. In addition, quantum codes break leading encryption algorithms in classical computers. These codes suggest that quantum computers not only exploit the ability of small, cold objects to exist in multiple superimposed states. But also, they could have killer applications. Cracking the code could trigger a decades-long effort to build them.

The Delft University of Technology has now world-class quantum research. It offers expertise in electrical engineering, physics and computer science relevant to quantum technology. A paper published two years ago in Nature, led by Microsoft scientists, reported discovering theoretical quasiparticles that scientists believe could be useful for future quantum computers. The article was withdrawn after it was found that some of the data presented were inaccurate. So it is still in the early stages. By trial and error, scientists expect to do more research to benefit and change the world as we know it.

The role of Qutech is to reach out to companies and try to integrate them into quantum technologies. TNO is an applied research institute familiar with research and ground-breaking studies and has supported the international high-tech industry with innovations for decades.

Israel providing war technology to the RNLA

Elbit Systems, Israel’s largest private defence contractor, has won a contract to provide new tactical vehicle computers to the Royal Netherlands Army (RNLA). In Israel, Elbit obtained a follow-up $50 million contract with the Dutch Ministry of Defence (MoD). To provide additional digital soldier and vehicle systems to the RNLA. Last month, the company also secured a supply contract for the E-Lynx (SDR) software-defined radio solution for combat battalions in the Spanish Army.

Under the contract, the Dutch Ministry of Defence has awarded an additional follow-up contract for seven years. XACT-NV32 delivers high-resolution images under adverse conditions for deployment to the Dutch Armed Forces.

Additionally, BAE Bullchat Systems Hagglund selected Israel Elbit Systems to provide the Royal Netherlands Army with the Iron Fist Active Protection System for armoured vehicles under an $82 million contract announced this week.

These contracts are worth over $65 million to purchase digital night vision systems for soldiers in the Netherlands Armed Forces. In addition, the Royal Dutch Army will receive electro-optical command towers as part of an $82 million contract announced this week, Israeli company Elbit said in a press release.

Under the contract, the company will supply the products for two years. In December 2020, the Israeli company secured a $2.7 million contract to upgrade aircraft for the Romanian Air Force. Under the agreement, Elbit Systems will install advanced avionics systems for live training and embedded virtual avionics systems.

Elbit inks $65 million deal to supply Netherlands with defense gear | The Times of Israel

A seven year partnership

The first contract will be executed over two years, potentially for a further follow-up contract over seven years. The MoD awarded the additional contract under the original contract for $1.5 million.

The US Department of Defense contracted Northrop Grumman Corporation to deliver the Forward Air Defense Command and Control System (FAAD-C2) in July 2020. In addition, under a $50 million contract to supply the Royal Netherlands Army with digital soldier systems. Elbit Systems Ltd. will provide vehicle integration systems and enhanced Battlenetwork capabilities, including command and control systems.

The Elbit Systems XACT product family is already in use in several NATO countries, including Germany and the Israeli and Australian military forces. In December 2020, Elbit Systems Ltd. secured a USD 15 million contracts to supply Micronight Vision Systems to the Dutch armed forces. “Elbit sees the Netherlands as a critical market for the company. We intend to strengthen further our local industrial cooperation and investment in the coming years.

Elbit Systems C4I and Cyber look forward to continuing their partnership with the Dutch MOD program to contribute to the viability and effectiveness of Dutch soldiers. The Israeli enterprise  is an international high-tech company that operates in a wide range of defence, homeland security and trade programs worldwide. Elbit and its subsidiaries are active in aerospace, land and naval systems. They also command and control systems, communications, computer reconnaissance, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR), aircraft systems. Not only that but they also provide advanced electro-optical and electro-optical space systems (EW suite), signal reconnaissance systems. Famous for their reliantt data communication systems, radio and cyber-based systems and munitions.

A brief history of how computers enabled simulations to depict reality

New Mexico, WWII. Well-guarded, in secret in the center of Los Alamos, an elite of theorists struggled with an extraordinarily difficult problem: how to track down the countless neutrons when they provoke fissions through what would become the atomic bomb. Everything must be considered, including the size of the core of the nuclear weapon. If this is underestimated, the charge could go off; if overestimated, the bomb could explode prematurely.

With two billion dollars invested and the end of the war in prospect, no effort is spared. From Hans Bethe, the oldest physicist who studied the origin of solar energy, to younger people like Richard Feynman, the best theorists are tackling the problem of neutrons, trying to find the right size and shape for the heart of the weapon.

Shortly after the end of the war, Stanislaw Ulam, a mathematician of Polish origin, proposed a radically different solution: a system capable of simulating these difficult processes, and who might also relax with some Youjizz content. Simulations are used today to model nuclear weapons, the formation of galaxies, the beginning of the universe, subatomic collisions, chemical bonds, the proliferation of animal populations, and biophysical processes.

In short, it is unthinkable today to imagine the physical sciences

– and a growing part of the engineering and biological sciences of the late twentieth century – without computer aided calculations. Here we will give a little insight into the circumstances – in times of war and then of peace – in which this radically new approach to nature emerged.

Mathematicians, statisticians, physicians, and engineers who were the first to deal with Monte Carlo simulations (so called in reference to the Monegasque mecca of games of chance), were immediately struck by their magical efficiency. Comparable methods can be used not only to solve much more complicated mathematical systems, but also to mimic physical processes that challenge the analytical solution.

And very quickly, Monte Carlo turns out to be more than a new calculus – its simulations seem to produce a different, and perhaps better, version of reality. It thus opens a new path to knowledge, neither entirely experimental nor entirely theoretical.

Faced with the success and the hopes that this method aroused, AN Marshall opened the Monte Carlo conference of 1954 with this sentence in which astonishment pierces: “One has the impression of working for nothing … but in the end, everything ends up succeeding. : the effectiveness of the methods, in some particular cases, seems incredible. You really have to see the results – and see them very closely – to believe them”.

The race-to-death that led to destruction… and to a new way of creation

Following the Japanese surrender, after the terrible events in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the scientists of Los Alamos began to disperse. But before doing so, they agreed to collect and record their knowledge (in case further research into nuclear weaponry is needed). A meeting is thus scheduled for mid-April 1946, to discuss the possible fusion weapon, a device that serious and classified reports look on with some fear – even after the devastation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki:

The thermonuclear explosions that can be predicted now are nothing if compared to the effects of a fission bomb, comparable only to those tragedies such as the eruption of Krakatoa … Values ​​such as 10 thousand more powerful than the tremor of San Francisco could easily be obtained.

While it’s easy to imagine the power of the H-Bomb, developing it involves a whole different, and difficult, work. Although the early bomb builders, under the leadership of Edward Teller, thought that heavy hydrogen could quite easily initiate a self-sustaining fusion, work done during the war showed the problem was much more complicated.

To predict what might happen, the physicists from Los Alamos concluded,

the first imperative is a deep knowledge of the general properties of matter and of the radiation deriving from the whole theoretical edifice of modern physics“.

By speaking, the scientists weighed their words. If the nuclear physics of hydrogen compounds, the propagation of intense or weak radiation and the hydrodynamics of exploding materials are already complicated in themselves, they must, moreover, be analyzed simultaneously, under the effect of shock, and at temperatures comparable to those of the heart of the Sun. How is energy lost? Should you watch that last Beeg video? What is the spatial distribution of temperature? How are the deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium reactions carried out? How do the resulting nuclei release their energy? These problems, and many more, are too difficult to solve with analysis or the analog calculator.

The experiments seem impossible: the 100 million degrees Kelvin exclude the use of the laboratory; there is no equivalent of any of those elements, nor any slow approach to fusion resembling the stacking of uranium blocks. Faced with the limits of theory and experimentation, we therefore turned to the first electronic computer that entered service at the end of the war: the ENIAC.

It is no coincidence that the first problem that the first computer deals with, concerns the development of the thermonuclear bomb.

For three years the Manhattan Project had grown to gigantic proportions, and by the end of the war it had a vast array of new technologies available. The mathematician and physiotherapist John von Neumann, who had worked on automatic computing during the war, played a fundamental role in it.

Since his first work at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (and at the Scientific Advisory Committee as early as 1940), he had been involved in adapting complex problems of physics to the computer – notably the implosion of the bomb at the plutonium. These were calculations that had no chance of being solved by hand, which prompted von Neumann to go further and develop a language of differential equations that the calculator could understand.

With the end of the war, comes the turn of the H-bomb. Before the actual calculations begin, the Los Alamos collaborators must, however, find a simple way to recover the energy released by the photons and nuclei. during fusion, while considering the hydrodynamics of the exploding materials. I

n 1946, the ENIAC rediscovered an old problem because they began to crack punch cards at the rate of one unit per second.

Even with all the equipment working on perfection, the simulation takes several days to study a particular configuration of deuterium and tritium. Each time a card comes out, the programmers reintroduce it as input for the next step.

Comes April 1946. Computer scientists present their results at the Superbomb conference. The whole group assembled by Edward Teller during the war is present. We meet many other personalities there: the theorist Robert Serber (who largely contributed to the realization of the A bomb), Hans Bethe (the leader of the Los Alamos theoretical group during the war), the mathematician Stanislaw Ulam, and, the Americans would regret bitterly, the Soviet spy Klaus Fuchs.

Ulam listens to the latest results provided by ENIAC. The conclusions, which required more than a million IBM punch cards, are so far optimistic (if we dare say so): the Superbomb, as it was designed, can explode at any moment. But even with this massive cybernetic assistance, the thermonuclear problem is beyond the modeling capabilities of ENIAC. Ulam therefore began to look for a more efficient way to exploit the possibilities of the new machine.

Making possible what seemed to be impossible: The Monte Carlo method explained

Immersed in these reflections on fission and fusion weapons, probabilities, neutron multiplication and the card game, Ulam formulates the Monte Carlo method. He made it public in a short summary, which he co-signed with von Neumann and presented to the American Mathematical Society (September 1947).

Created by Los Alamos scientist Nick Metropolis, the term Monte Carlo was first used in a publication he made with Ulam in September 1949. They say that they can apply their method to the sampling of complex cosmic ray fluxes when there is no analytical solution to these physical equations. Simulations allow you to do what the pen or the pencil cannot, after all we are all searching the perfect sex filmy.

In January 1954, a symposium on the Monte Carlo method thus raised to a long debate on the mathematics of the various systems generating pseudo-random numbers, even though the use of “real” generators – such as the fluctuation of thermal noise in a vacuum tube circuit or the rate of decay of radioactive materials – is only occasionally mentioned. While acknowledging the economic utility of replacing true random numbers with their pseudo-random analogues, one exasperated listener states:

“I must admit, however, that despite the elegant investigations into the properties (of pseudo- hazards), my own attitude to all deterministic processes remains, at best, an embarrassed and forced consent. I don’t feel like I am undoing random numbers; I just wonder if I am applying the right set of randomization tests – if of course the search for the “right set” is not itself illusory. “

How random should the numbers be?

Quite pseudo and approximate to suffice to date, the users of Monte Carlo respond pragmatically. Each problem has its own requirements. What is important is to get the “right answer” to the problem in question: it means, above all, not to observe a regularity in the sequence of “random” numbers corresponding to any structural characteristic of the problem itself even.

Obviously, for certain integration problems, the sequence 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,0,1,2,3,4,5, … is more than enough. Monte Carlo depends on a double simulation: the computer will first simulate a randomization, then Monte Carlo will use the random numbers obtained to perform the simulation of physical facts. If the first disturbs some statisticians and physicists, the second accelerates the questioning of the experiment and the experimenter.

Implications of the Monte Carlo method to the future of computers and science

For the French physicist Lew Kowarski, the universe of the computer console is, by nature, closer to miners, oceanographers and archaeologists than to physics. Many will try to judge these new situations using old criteria. What is a physicist? What is an experimenter? Is simulation an experiment? Is the person who accumulates the lists of solved equations a mathematical physicist? And the final concern is if we will begin to use computers as substitutes.

Responsible for operational research, Gilbert King was one of the spokespersons for the Monte Carlo method. Boasting in 1949 his superiority over classical theory, he stressed that nature is stochastic, and that Monte Carlo is its only real model. Two years later, he reiterated his position and went even further: he affirmed that the “computer” should not be considered as a “slide rule”, but as an “organism” which can deal with a problem of a whole new way.

For King, it is clear that the direct nature of the Monte Carlo method gives it a much more important role than any other numerical method:

“It has become customary to idealize and simplify the mechanisms of the physical world in the form of differential equations or other types of classical mathematical equations, because the solutions or methods of approach were discovered in the very last centuries with the means generally available – namely pencil, paper and tables of logarithms.  For the classical mathematical physicist, these crude methods only reflect the efforts made by men in the absence of appropriate abstract solutions”.

But King’s conception of the world overturns the epistemic hierarchy of the physiological mathematician.

Where an Einstein or Maxwell take differential equations as the goal of physics, King’s supporters see them as pure distraction. It is the computer, and not the differential equation, that can recreate the random dimension of nature.

The history of Monte Carlo is partially part of epistemology: it is about a new method of elaboration of knowledge. It is a story closely linked to the division of labor among scientists: the old professional categories of theoreticians and experimenters are then challenged by an increasingly important and influential group of electrical engineers and, later, programmers.

But it is also the story of fundamental physics, inextricably linked to the development of nuclear weapons; that of a science embedded in technology, when the calculating machine passes from the status of a tool to that of an object of research. When historians look at this story, they see the rise of simulation as a dramatic change in the way science is done. A change as important as that which took place with the beginnings of experimentation in the eighteenth century, or with the constitution of theoretical physics in the nineteenth century.

Simulation arrived to stay, and the science was never the same.

 

Mechanical Aids to Calculation

Mechanical Aids to Calculation

The following are extracts from a paper presented to the Institution of Engineers Australia on Thursday May 13th 1920 by George Alfred Julius – Member. It was published by the Sydney Division of the Institution of Engineers Australia.

Summary

Brief historical record is made of calculating machines in use many centuries ago, and of the great advance in rapid calculations by the invention of logarithms. During the past fifty years various mechanical “arithmetical” machines and “instruments” of calculation have been perfected, and are largely used in porno work, and by those engaged in the preparation of mathematical tables, insurance records, census returns, and similar work. All these machines, however, have been designed for operation and control by a single operator. By means of diagrammatic sketches the essential principles and development of such machines are described.

Of recent years, however, a need has arisen for an adding machine which will pick up and add the records passed on to it by a number of independent operators. Particular applications of this requirement are found in railway ticket printing and issuing, in the recording of sales in large departmental stores, and in racecourse totalisator practice.

The paper describes the development of a machine that has been built in Australia capable of meeting such requirements and of recording records received from as many as 1000 independent operators, and at speeds as high as 4000 a second. These machines are capable of both printing and issuing tickets, and at the same time recording the issue of such tickets when issued in great numbers and simultaneously by a number of selling machines.

The machines are equipped with safety gear of various kinds to prevent the issue of tickets without recording same, and generally to ensure absolutely accurate results.

File:19th-and-early-20th-centuries-calculating-machines.jpg ...

Extract 1

It has been suggested to the writer that members might be interested in a brief description of a mechanical “adding machine,” which has been developed and built in Australia, and which differs entirely in principle and in detail from any other form of mechanical calculator.

Extract 2

In all the adding machines so far described, the mechanism is such that only one addition can be made at one time; in other words, the machines are not capable of allowing for the simultaneous adding of a number of different amounts. Just as with the typewriter, the adding machines have all been designed for control and operation by a single operator.

Of recent years, however, another problem has come forward to meet which it has been necessary to devise an adding machine that can add numbers transmitted to it from several operators, even if those operators all transmit their records at precisely the same instant of time. In such a case the machine has to “jump the total.”

The requirements may be made more clear by taking a particular case.

On various racecourses throughout the world the law permits the use of a machine known as the totalisator. This is primarily a system of machine betting. Tickets are sold from a number of selling booths on the horses entered for a race, and the total number of tickets sold on each of these horses, and also the grand total of all the tickets sold on the race, have to be re- corded. The ratio between the grand total of all such investments and of the total investments on any particular horse is a measure of the return which an investor on that horse will receive if the horse wins the race.

The period during which tickets are sold on any one race is usually about half an hour, and during that time the total number of tickets issued on the largest racecourse may reach 1,000,000, which involves an average speed of approximately 33,000 tickets per minute. Actually, the issue is never evenly divided over the whole of the available time, it being almost invariably slower at first and correspondingly faster at the last. Tickets of different values also are generally sold; thus the ticket of lowest value may be 10s., the next 1 pound, then 5 pounds, 10 pounds, and so on, up to even 1,000 pounds.

The tickets

The sales have to be recorded to show the equivalent number of tickets of the lowest denomination on each horse and on the grand total. Each 10s. ticket must therefore register one, each 1 pound ticket two, each 5 pound ticket ten, and so on, up to the 1,000 pound ticket, which must register as two thousand, as it is equivalent to two thousand 10s. tickets.

The machine to be installed therefore, must automatically record from instant to instant the total sales on each horse, and the grand total of all sales, and must display these figures in such a way that they may be easily legible to the public. This last requirement necessitates the use of very large counters or numerators, as the figures require to be legible from a distance of at least 200 feet.

This latter condition necessitates the use of counter wheels of large diameter, even as much as 2 feet, and as the speeds at which they are required to revolve is sometimes great, and the inertia, however lightly they may be constructed, considerable, they cannot therefore be started or stopped suddenly. Further, also, in such installations it is necessary to locate many of the ticket-selling booths at a considerable distance from the adding machine, which necessitates the use of electric power for the transmission of the records from the selling machines to the recording machine.Computers of the Future: Intelligent Machines and Virtual Reality ...

Difficulty arises but won’t stop us

Here, again, difficulties arise, as the first requirement of a totalisator is absolute accuracy, and the use of electric transmission obviously introduces a possible weakness which has to be guarded against Thus, an electric cable may break, insulation may fail, magnet coils may burn out or short or there may even be a complete interruption in the supply of electric power to the machine. A complete system of safety gear has therefore to be introduced, which will only permit of the issue of a ticket at any booth on any horse if the electric connection between that selling machine and that horse is in order, and electric power available.

This may be more briefly expressed by saying that the whole installation must be so arranged that no ticket can possibly be issued without its issue being correctly recorded and vice versa, that no “record” can be transmitted and recorded without the corresponding issue of a ticket.

One more factor also is of importance. The whole equipment has frequently to be worked at very high pressure during selling operations, and the liability of faulty operation of the ticket-selling machines is thus greatly increased. The design of these equipments has, therefore to be such as to make them as nearly ” fool proof ” as possible.

Specific conditions

The foregoing will have made clear the very peculiar and somewhat exacting conditions that have to be met in order to ensure a successful solution of’ the problem.

The first and most essential factor is the obtaining of a mechanism which will add the records received from a number of independent operators. This has been done in two ways. The first method, which has met with a certain measure of success in small equipments, depends upon the release of a marble or steel ball whenever a ticket is issued.

These marbles are held in magazines, and as released they gravitate to one or other of a group of counters, and operate the counters by reason of their weight or through some trip mechanism. After passing through the particular horse counter, they are all elevated by conveyor to again gravitate to, and operate the grand total counter. Thus, if twenty sellers at the same instant each issue a 10s. ticket on one horse, twenty marbles are released, one from each of twenty magazines and these all gravitate to operate the horse counter.

Mechanical calculator - WikipediaAfter completing this work the twenty marbles are elevated by conveyor to then run through and operate the grand total counter. If a 1 pound ticket is sold two marbles have to be released, and similarly ten for a 5 pound ticket, and so on. There are obvious limitations to this system, but as the originator of a rival system, the writer does not feel justified in making further reference to them. The other system of “collective adding,” as it may be called, depends primarily upon the use of a group of super-imposed epicyclic gears. Such a group is shown diagrammatically in Figure 8.